Physical and Social Perceptions of the Neighbourhood and Youth Volunteerism: Canada’s Capital Region

Sean Pearce, Elizabeth Kristjansson

Abstract


Youth are embedded within various ecological systems that may impact their philanthropic behaviour. This study employed online data from a sample of undergraduate students and traced the various pathways through which neighbourhood perceptions (e.g., social cohesion, satisfaction with amenities) related to formal and informal volunteering intensities. Path analyses revealed that neighbourhood cohesion directly predicted formal and informal volunteer frequency; as well, it mediated the relationship between satisfaction with neighbourhood amenities and informal volunteerism. Neighbourhood cohesion was strongly associated with informal volunteer intensity, whereas satisfaction with neighbourhood attractiveness did not relate to any volunteer outcomes. Neighbourhood characteristics may be important drivers of youth volunteerism, and thus stakeholders, organizations, and individuals should consider the impact of the social environmental context on shaping youths’ helping behaviour.

Les jeunes font partie de divers systèmes écologiques qui peuvent influencer leur comportement philanthropique. Cette étude utilise des données recueillies en ligne à partir d’un échantillon d’étudiants de premier cycle afin de retracer les divers parcours par lesquels leur perception de leur quartier (par exemple, sa cohésion sociale, leur satisfaction par rapport aux services offerts) a une incidence sur leurs activités bénévoles formelles et informelles. L’analyse révèle que la cohésion sociale a comme effet d’augmenter le bénévolat formel et informel. En outre, la cohésion semble augmenter le bénévolat informel là où il y a satisfaction par rapport aux services offerts dans la communauté. En effet, il y a une forte corrélation entre la cohésion d’un quartier et le bénévolat informel. En revanche, la satisfaction à l’égard du pittoresque d’un quartier ne paraît pas avoir d’incidence sur le niveau d’implication philanthropique. Il n’empêche qu’en général un bon quartier peut motiver les jeunes à faire du bénévolat. Ainsi, les parties prenantes, les organisations et les individus devraient tenir compte du contexte socioenvironnemental sur le comportement philanthropique des jeunes.


Keywords


Volunteering; Youth; Neighbourhoods; Informal volunteering; Cohesion / Bénévolat; Jeunesse; Quartiers; Bénévolat informel; Cohésion

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adriaanse, C. C. M. (2007). Measuring residential satisfaction: A residential environmental satisfaction scale (RESS). Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 22, 287-304. doi:10.1007/s10901-007 9082-9

Ahn, S., Phillips, K. L., Smith, M. L., & Ory, M. G. (2011). Correlates of volunteering among aging Texans: The roles of health indicators, spirituality, and social engagement. Maturitas, 69, 257-262. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.04.002

Aiello, A., Ardone, R. G., & Scopelliti, M. (2010). Neighbourhood planning improvement:Physical attributes, cognitive and affective evaluation and activities in two neighbourhoods in Rome. Evaluation and Program Planning, 33, 264-275. doi:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2009.10.004

Andersen, H. S. (2008). Why do residents want to leave deprived neighbourhoods? The importance of residents’ subjective evaluations of their neighbourhood and its reputation. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 23(1), 79-101. doi: 10.1007/s10901-008-9109-x

Arnberger, A., Eder, R. (2012). The influence of green space on community attachment of urban and suburban residents. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 11(1), 41-49. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2011.11.003

Bowling, A., & Stafford, M. (2007). How do objective and subjective assessments of neighbourhood influence social and physical functioning in older age? Findings from a British survey of ageing. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 2533-2549. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.03.009

Braubach, M. (2007). Residential conditions and their impact on residential environment satisfaction and health: Results of the WHO large analysis and review of European housing and health status (LARES) study. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 30, 384-403. doi: 10.1504/IJEP.2007.014817

Brennan, S. (2011). Canadians’ perceptions of personal safety and crime, 2009 (Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-x). Retrieved from Statistics Canada website: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11577-eng.htm#a7

Bromell, L., & Cagney, K. A. (2014). Companionship in the neighborhood context: Older adults’ living arrangements and perceptions of social cohesion. Research on Aging, 36, 228-243. doi:10.1177/0164027512475096

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21, 230-258. doi:10.1177/0049124192021002005

Browning, C. R., Cagney, K. A., & Boettner, B. (2016). Neighborhood, place, and the life course. In M. J. Shanahan, J. T. Mortimer, & M. J. Kirkpatrick (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp.597-620). Chicago: Springer International Publishing.

Bruhn, J. (2009). The concept of social cohesion. In J. Bruhn, The group effect (pp. 31-48). Boston, MA: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0364-8_2 Buckner, J. C. (1988). The development of an instrument to measure neighbourhood cohesion. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 771-791. doi: 10.1007/BF00930892

Buffel, T., De Donder, L., Phillipson, C., Dury, S., De Witte, N., & Verté, D. (2013). Social participation among older adults living in medium-sized cities in Flanders, Belgium: The role of neighborhood perceptions. Health Promotion International, 29, 655-668.doi:10.1093/heapro/dat009

Carson, E. D. (1999). On defining and measuring volunteering in the United States and abroad. Law and Contemporary Problems, 64, 67-71. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1147&context=lcp

Chan, J., To, H.-P., & Chan E. (2006). Reconsidering social cohesion: developing a definition and analytical framework for empirical research. Social Indicators Research, 75, 273-302. doi: 10.1007/s11205-005 2118-1

Child, S. T., Jake-Schoffman, D. E., Kaczynski, A. T., Forthofer, M., Wilcox, S., & Baruth, M. (2016). Neighbourhood attributes associated with the social environment. American Journal of Health Promotion, 30, 634-637. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.140307-ARB-99

Clarke, P. J., Ailshire, J. A., Nieuwenhuijsen, E. R., & de Kleijn - de Vrankrijker, M. W. (2011). Participation among adults with disability: The role of the urban environment. Social Science & Medicine, 72, 1674-1684. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.03.025

Crook, J., Weir, R., Willms, D., & Egdorf, T. (2006). Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS care, 17, 39-45. doi:10.1016/j.jana.2006.05.002

Dallago L., Perkins D., Santinello M., Boyce, W. T., Molcho, M., & Morgan, A. (2009). Adolescent place attachment, social capital, and perceived safety: A comparison of 13 countries. American Journal of Community Psychology, 44, 148–160. doi: 10.1007/s10464-009-9250-z

Da Luz Reis, A. T, & Lay, M. C. D (2010). Internal and external aesthetics of housing estates. Environment and Behavior, 42, 271-294. doi: 10.1177/0013916509334134

Dassopoulos, A., & Monnat, S. M. (2011). Do perceptions of social cohesion, social support, and social control mediate the effects of local community participation on neighbourhood satisfaction? Environment and Behaviour, 43, 546-565. doi:10.1177/0013916510366821

Dempsey, N. (2008). Does quality of the built environment affect social cohesion? Urban Design and Planning, 161, 105-114. doi: 10.1680/udap.2008.161.3.105

De Vries, S., van, Dillen, S. M. E., Groenewegen, P. P., & Spreeuwenberg, P. (2013). Streetscape greenery and health: stress, social cohesion and physical activity as mediators. Social Science & Medicine, 94, 26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.06.030

Duke, N. N., Borowsky, I. W., & Pettingell, S. L (2012). Adult perceptions of neighbourhood: Links to youth engagement. Youth & Society, 44, 408-430. doi:10.1177/0044118X11402852

Dury, S., Willems, J., De Witte, N., De Donder, L., Buffel, T., & Verte, D. (2014). Municipality and neighbourhood influences on volunteering in later life. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 35, 601-626. doi: 10.1177/0733464814533818

Eamon, M. K., & Mulder, C. (2005). Predicting antisocial behavior among Latino young adolescents: An ecological systems analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(1), 117-127. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.75.1.117

Echeverría, S. E., Diez-Roux, A.V., Shea, S., Borrell, L. N., & Jackson, S. (2008). Associations of neighborhood problems and neighborhood social cohesion with mental health and health behaviors: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Health & Place, 14, 853- 865. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.01.004

Ellaway A., Macintyre S., & Kearns A. (2001). Perceptions of place and health in socially contrasting neighbourhoods. Urban Studies, 38, 2299-2316. doi: 10.1080/00420980120087171

European Commission (2013). Quality of life in cities: Perception survey in 79 European cities (Flash Eurobarometer 366, Catalogue No. KN-03-13-433-EN-C). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/urban/survey2013_en.p df Finkelstein, M. A., & Brannick, M. T. (2007). Applying theories of institutional helping to informal volunteering: motives, role identity, and prosocial personality. Social Behaviour and Personality: An International Journal, 35, 101-114. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2007.35.1.101

Fluery-Bahi, G., Felonneau, M.-L., & Marchand, D. (2008). Processes of place identification and residential satisfaction. Environment and Behavior, 40, 669-682. doi: 10.1177/0013916507307461

Forehand, R., & Jones, D. J. (2003). Neighbourhood violence and coparent conflict: Interactive influence on child psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 591-604. doi:10.1023/A:1026206122470

Forrest, R. & Kearns, A. (2001). Social cohesion, social capital, and the neighbourhood. Urban Studies, 38, 2125-2143. doi: 10.1080/00420980120087081

Glass, T. A., & Balfour, J. L. (2003). Neighbourhoods, aging, and functional limitations. In I. Kawachi & L. F. Berkman (Eds.), Neighbourhoods and health (pp. 303-334). doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195138382.001.0001

Grillo, M. C, Teixeira, M. A, & Wilson, D. C (2010). Residential satisfaction and civic engagement: Understanding the causes of community participation. Social Indicators Research, 97, 451-466. doi: 10.1007/s11205-009-9511-0

Grzeskowiak, S., Sirgy, M. J., & Widgery, R. (2003). Residents' satisfaction with community services: Predictors and outcomes. The Journal of Regional Analysisand Policy, 33, 1-36.

Guo, S. (2014). Immigrants as active citizens: Exploring the volunteering experience of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 12, 51–70. doi: 10.1080/14767724.2013.858527

Hand, C., Law, M., Hanna, S., Elliot, S., & McColl, M. A. (2012). Neighbourhood influences on participation in activities among older adults with chronic health conditions. Health & Place, 18, 869-876. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.03.004

Hartman, J. J. (1981). Group cohesion and the regulation of self-esteem. In H. Kellerman (Ed.), Group Cohesion: Theoretical and clinical perspectives (pp. 255-267). New York, NY:Grune & Stratton.

Hellman, C. M., Hoppes, S., & Ellison, G. C. (2006). Factors associated with college student intent to engage in community service. The Journal of Psychology, 140(1), 29-39. doi:10.3200/JRLP.140.1.29-39

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60. Retrieved from http://arrow.dit.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=buschmanart

Hovbrandt, P., Stahl, A., Iwarsson, S., Horstmann, V., Carlsson, G., (2007). Very old people’s use of the pedestrian environment: functional limitations, frequency of activity and environmental demands. European Journal of Ageing, 4, 201–211. doi:10.1007/s10433-007-0064-2

Hu, L.-t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118

James, R. N., Carswell, A. T, & Sweaney, A. L (2009). Sources of discontent: Residential satisfaction of tenants from an internet ratings site. Environment and Behavior,41(1), 43-59. doi: 10.1177/0013916507310031

Kass, R. E., & Raftery, A. E. (1995). Bayes factors. Journal of the American Statistical Association 90, 773–795. Retrieved from https://www.stat.washington.edu/raftery/Research/PDF/kass1995.pdf

Kegler, M. C., Oman, R. F., Vesely, S. K., McLeroy, K. R., Aspy, C. B., Rodine, S., & Marshall, L. (2005). Relationships among youth assets and neighborhood and community resources. Health Education & Behavior, 32, 380-397. doi: 10.1177/1090198104272334

King, D. (2008). Neighborhood and individual factors in activity in older adults: Results from the neighborhood and senior health study. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 16, 144–170. doi: 10.1123/japa.16.2.144 Kitchen, P., Williams, A., & Chowhan, J. (2012). Sense of community belonging and health in Canada: A regional analysis. Social Indicators Research, 107(1), 103-126. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9830-9

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, second edition. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Latham, K., & Clarke, P. J. (2016). Neighborhood disorder, perceived social cohesion, and social participation among older Americans: Findings from the National Health & Aging Trends Study. Journal of Aging and Health, 30(1), 3-26. doi: 10.1177/089826431666593

Lee, Y.-J., & Brudney, J. L. (2012). Participation in formal and informal volunteering: Implications for volunteer recruitment. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 23, 159-180. doi: 10.1002/nml.21060

Lenzi, M., Vieno, A., Perkins, D. D., Santinello, M., Elgar, F. J., Morgan, A., & Mazzardis, S. (2012). Family Affluence, School and Neighborhood Contexts and Adolescents’ Civic Engagement: A Cross-National Study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50, 197-210. doi: 10.1007/s10464-0129489-7

Letki, N. (2008). Does diversity erode social cohesion? Social capital and race in Britishneighbourhoods. Political Studies, 56(1), 99–126. doi: 10.1111/j.14679248.2007.00692.x

Litt, J. S., Schmiege, S. J., Hale, J. W., Buchenau, M., & Sancar, F. (2015). Exploring ecological, emotional and social levers of self-rated health for urban gardeners and non-gardeners: A path analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 144, 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.09.004

Looker, E. D. (2014). Supportive communities and a sense of belonging in rural and non-rural communities in Canada. The Journal of Rural and Community Development, 9, 163-180. Retrieved from http://journals.brandonu.ca/jrcd/article/view/1185/273

Lorenc, T., Clayton, S., Neary, D., Whitehead, M., Petticrew, M., Thomson, H.... & Renton, A.(2012). Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing: Mapping review of theories and causal pathways. Health & Place, 18, 757-765. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.04.001

MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1, 130-149. doi: 10.1037//1082-989X.1.2.130

MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99-128. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4

Manzo L. C, & Perkins, D. D. (2006). Finding common ground: the importance of place attachment to community participation and planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 20, 335–350. doi: 10.1177/0885412205286160 McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M.(1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 6–23. doi: 10.1002/1520-6629(198601)14:1<6::AID-JCOP2290140103>3.0.CO;2-I

McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 415-444. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.415

Mitani, H. (2013). Influences of resources and subjective dispositions on formal and informal volunteering. Voluntas, 25, 1022-1040. doi: 10.1007/s11266-013-9384-3

Musick, M. A., & Wilson, J. (2007). Volunteers: A social profile. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Obasaju, M. A., Palin, F. L., Jacobs, C., Anderson, P., & Kaslow, N. J. (2009). Won’t you be my neighbor? Using an ecological approach to examine the impact of community on revictimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(1), 38–53. doi: 10.1177/0886260508314933

Okun, M. A., & Michel, J. (2006). Sense of community and being a volunteer among the young-old. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 25, 173-188. doi: 10.1177/0733464806286710

Onyx, J., & Bullen, P. (2000). Measuring social capital in five communities. The journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, 36(1), 23-42. doi: 10.1177/0021886300361002

Oswald F., & Wahl, H.-W. (2005). Dimensions of the meaning of home in later life. In G. D. Rowles & H. Chaudhury (Eds.), Home and identity in late life - International perspectives (pp. 21-45). New York, NY: Springer.

Parkes, A., Kearns, A., & Atkinson, R. (2002). What makes people dissatisfied with their neighbourhoods? Urban Studies, 39, 2413-2438. doi:10.1080/0042098022000027031

Plybon L. E, Edwards L., Butler D., Belgrave, F. Z, Allison, K. W. (2006). Examining the link between neighborhood cohesion and school outcomes: The role of support coping among African American adolescent girls. Journal of Black Psychology, 29, 393–407. doi: 10.1177/0095798403256892

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717-731. doi:10.3758/BF03206553

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879-891. doi: 10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

Prezza, M., Amici, M., Roberti, T., & Tedeschi, G. (2001). Sense of community referred to the whole town: Its relations with neighboring, loneliness, life satisfaction, and area of residence. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 29-52. doi: 10.1002/1520- 6629(200101)29:1<29::AID-JCOP3>3.0.CO;2-C

Richard, L., Gauvin, L., Gosselin, C., & LaForest, S. (2008). Staying connected: neighbourhood correlates of social participation among older adults living in an urban environment in Montreal, Quebec. Health Promotion International, 24(1), 46-57. doi: 10.1093/heapro/dan039.

Sampson, R. J. (1997). The embeddedness of child and adolescent development: A community-level perspective on urban violence. In J. McCord (Ed.), Violence and childhood in the inner city (pp. 31-77). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Gannon-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing ‘neighbourhood effects’: Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443–478. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.28.110601.141114

Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1999). Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighbourhoods. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 603– 651. doi: 10.1086/210356

Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W, & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924. doi: 10.1126/science.277.5328.918

Sarason, S. B. (1974). The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling, Second edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Smith, D. H. (1994). Determinants of voluntary association participation and volunteering: A literature review. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 23, 243–263.doi: 10.1177/089976409402300305 Snyder, M., & Omoto, A.M. (2007). Social action. In A.W. Kruglanski & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Social Psychology: A handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 940-961), New York: Guilford. Stanley, D. (2003). What do we know about social cohesion: The research perspective of the federal government’s social cohesion research network. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 28(1), 5-17. doi: 10.2307/3341872

Statistics Canada. (2007). Microdata user guide: Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2007. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada.

Statistics Canada (2018). Incident-based crime statistics, by detailed violations (Table 35-10-0177-01). Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3510017701&pickMembers%5B0 %5D=1.18&pickMembers%5B1%5D=2.1

Stürmer, S., Siem, B., Snyder, M., & Kropp, A. (2006). Empathy-motivated helping: The moderating role of group membership. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 943–956. doi: 10.1177/0146167206287363

Thacker, J. W., Fields, M. W., & Tetrick, L. (1989). The factor structure of union commitment: An application of confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 228-232. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.74.2.228

Völker, B., Flap, H., & Lindenberg, S. (2007). When are neighbourhoods communities? Community in Dutch neighbourhoods. European Sociological Review, 23(1), 99-114. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcl022

Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F., & Summers, G. (1977). Assessing reliability and stability in panel models. Sociological Methodology, 8(1), 84-136. Retrieved from https://www.statmodel.com/bmuthen/articles/Article_001.pdf

Wilhelm, M. O., & Bekkers, B. R. (2010). Helping behavior, dispositional empathic concern, and the principle of care. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73(1), 11–32. doi: 10.1177/0190272510361435

Williams, J., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Resampling and distribution of the product methods for testing indirect effects in complex models. Structural Equation Modeling, 51(1), 23-51. doi: 10.1080/10705510701758166

Wilson, J. (2000). Volunteering. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 215-240. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.215

Wilson, J. Q., & Kelling, G. L. (1982). Broken windows: The police and neighbourhood safety. Atlantic Monthly, 249, 29-38.

Wilson, J., & Musick, M. A. (1997). Who cares? Toward an integrated theory of volunteer work. American Sociological Review, 62, 694-713. doi: 10.2307/2657355

Woldoff, R. A. (2002). The effects of local stressors on neighborhood attachment. Social Forces, 81(1), 87–116. doi: 10.1353/sof.2002.0065

Young, A. F., Russell, A., & Powers, J. R. (2004). The sense of belonging to a neighbourhood: can it be measured and is it related to health and well being in older women? Social Science & Medicine, 59, 2627–2637. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.001




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22230/cjnser.2019v10n1a291

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.