An Innovative Opportunity? Social Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and the Pedagogical Possibilities for Indigenous Learners
Keywords:Indigenous business, Social innovation, Pedagogy, Indigenous higher education, Business education / Affaires autochtones, Innovation sociale, Pédagogie, Études avancées autochtones, Éducation en commerce
The need to indigenize curriculum in Canada is pressing. Education, however, is fraught and complex. Questions have been asked about the accessibility and applicability of traditional class-based educational paradigms and subject matter. Based on the limited courses currently on offer in Canada, the emergent social-innovation pedagogy seems to bear several points of sympathy or commonality with Indigenous pedagogies, including emphasis on experiential learning, reflection, and collaborative work. Indigenous pedagogies and ways of knowing cannot and should not be slotted into a Eurocentric educational paradigm. This article will begin to explore this possible pedagogical sympathy—an overlap between the two knowledge systems—with the support of a group of Indigenous business students interested in social innovation as a tool to help them build the resilience of their communities.
Il existe au Canada un besoin pressant d’autochtoniser le curriculum. Il n’est pourtant pas toujours simple et facile de modifier le système éducatif, même si certains ont déjà mis en doute l’accessibilité et la pertinence du cours didactique traditionnel. À cet égard, on peut remarquer plusieurs affinités—y compris un accent mis sur l’apprentissage, la réflexion et le travail de collaboration par l’expérience—entre les pédagogies autochtones et la pédagogie émergente d’innovation sociale, malgré le nombre limité de cours de ce type offerts au Canada actuellement. Les pédagogies et manières de savoir autochtones ne peuvent pas, et ne devraient pas, être insérées dans un paradigme eurocentrique. Cet article entame l’exploration des affinités entre les deux systèmes de savoir en consultant des étudiants en commerce autochtones intéressés par l’innovation sociale comme outil pouvant les aider à rendre leurs communautés plus résilientes.
“Indigenous Innovation Summit puts positive spin on social Change,” CBC News Manitoba, posted 19 November 2015. Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/indigenous-innovation-summit-puts-positive-spin-on-social-change-1.3325981.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action. Winnipeg, Man: Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015, available at trc.ca.
Honouring the Truth, Reconciliation for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Winnipeg, Man: Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015, available at trc.ca
Indigenous Innovation Summit Report, 2015. Ottawa: National Association of Friendship Centers, 2016.
Alden Rivers, B., A. Armellinin, R. Maxwell, S. Allen, & C. Durkin. “Social Innovation education: towards a framework for learning design.” Higher Education, Skills & Work-based Learning 5.4 (2015): 383-400.
Alden Rivers, B., M. Nie & A. Armellini. “University Teachers’ Conceptions of ‘Changemakers’: A starting point for embedding social innovation in learning and teaching.” Education + Training. 57.5 (2014): 588-600.
Anderson, R., L. Paul Dana & T. Dana.“Indigenous land rights, entrepreneurship, and economic development in Canada: Opting-In to the Global Economy.” Journal of World Business 41.4 (February 2006): 45-55.
Anderson, B., B. Honig & A. Peredo. “Communities in the global economy: where social and indigenous entrepreneurship meet” in Entrepreneurship: Gender, Geographies & Social Context, ed. Thierry Burger-Helmchen. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2012, pp. 56-78.
Archibald, Jo-ann. Indigenous Storywork: Educating the heart, mind, body, and spirit. Vancouver: UBC press, 2008.
Battiste, Marie. Decolonization Education: Nurturing the Learning Spirit. Saskatoon: Purich, 2013.
Battiste, Marie. Indigenous Knowledge and Pedagogy in First Nations Education: A Literature Review with Recommendations prepared for the National Working Group on Education and the Minister of Indian Affairs, INAC, Ottawa, 31 October 2002.
Carr-Stewart, Shella, Geraldine Balzer & Michael Cottrell, “First Nations Post-Secondary Education in Western Canada: Obligations, Barriers, & Opportunities,” in Anderson & Hanrahan, eds. Indigenizing the Academy (2013): 30.
Coulter, C., C. Michael & L. Poynor. “Storytelling as Pedagogy: An Unexpected Outcome of Narrative Inquiry.” Curriculum Inquiry 37.2 (2007): 103-122.
Gallop, C. & N. Bastien. “Supporting Success: Aboriginal Students in Higher Education.” Canadian Journal of Higher Education 46.2 (2016): 206-224.
Grande, Sandra. “Red Pedagogy: The Un-Methodology” in Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies eds. Norman K. Denzin & Yvonne Lincoln. Sage Publication, 2008; pp. 233-254.
Haapasaari, A., Y. Engestrom & H. Kerosuo. “The emergence of learners’ transformative agency in a Change Laboratory Intervention.” Journal of Education and Work 29.2 (2016): 232-262.
Hindle, K., R. Anderson, R. Giberson & B. Kayseas. “Relating Practice to Theory in Indigenous Entrepreneurship: A pilot Investigation of the Kitsaki Partnership Portfolio.” American Indian Quarterly 29.1&2 (Winter/Spring 2005): 1-23, 1.
Hindle, K. & P. Moroz. “Indigenous entrepreneurship as a research field: developing a definitional framework from the emerging canon.” International Enterprise Management Journal 6 (2010): 357-385.
Hurley, M. & J. Wherrett. The Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Ottawa: Government of Canada, 4 October 1999. available at http://www.lop.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/prb9924-e.htm;
Iseke-Barnes, Judy. “Pedagogies for Decolonization,” Canadian Journal of Native Education 31.1 (2008): 123-147.
Iseke, Judy & Brennus BMJK. “Learning Life Lessons from Indigenous Storytelling with Tom McCallum.” in Indigenous Philosophies and Critical Education: A Reader, ed. G.S. Dei. New York: Peter Long, 2011. pp. 245-261.
Kitchen, J. L. Cherubini, L. Trudeau & J. Hodson, “Aboriginal education as cultural brokerage: New Aboriginal teachers reflect on language and culture in the classroom.” McGill Journal of Education 44.3 (2009): 355-375.
Little Bear, L. “Jagged worldviews colliding.” in Reclaiming indigenous voice and vision, ed. M. Battiste. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 2000, pp. 77-85.
MacDonald, Nancy. “Welcome to Winnipeg: Where Canada’s racism problem is at its worst.” McClean’s Magazine 22 January 2015.
MacLean, Melanie, and Linda Wason-Ellam. "When Aboriginal and Métis teachers use storytelling as an instructional practice." Aboriginal Education Research Network 2006.
McDonald, Nicole.“ Indigenous Innovation Summit: What Happened and What’s Next?” Blog for The J.W. McConnell Family Foundation, 16 December 2015, available at: http://www.mcconnellfoundation.ca/blog/2015/12/16/.
Mengel, T., M. Tantawy & J. McNally. “Social Entrepreneurship Education in Canada: Passion & Practice.” Workplace Review (April 2016): 57-70.
Nicholl, A. “The Nature of Social Innovation.” in Social Innovation: Blurring Boundaries to Reconfigure Markets. ed. A. Nichol & A. Murdock. London: Palgrave, 2011. p. 1-30,
Ottman, J. “Indigenizing the Academy: Confronting ‘Contentious Ground’.” in Anderson & Hanrahan, eds. Indigenizing the Academy (2013): 8-25.
Pol, E. & S. Ville, “Social Innovation: Buzz Word or Enduring Term?” The Journal of Socio-Economics 38 (2009): 878-885.
Russo, Peter & Susan Miller. “Social Innovation Education,” in Social Innovation: Solutions for a Sustainable Future. ed. Thomas Osburg & Rene Schmidpeter. Heidelberg: Springer, 2013. p. 171-181
Sinclair, R. “Aboriginal Social Work Education in Canada: Decolonization Pedagogy for the Seventh Generation.” First Peoples Child and Family Review 1.1 (September, 2004): 49-61.
Smith, Isaac & Warner Woodworth. “Developing Social Entrepreneurs & Social Innovators: A Social Identity and Self-Efficacy Approach.” Academy of Management: Learning & Education 11.3 (2012): 390-407.
Stauch, J, & L. Cornelisse, Strengthening Community Leadership Learning in Canada: Results of a Canada-Wide Research Project on Leadership Learning for Social Change. Report Prepared for The Institute for Community Prosperity, Mount Royal University, Calgary, AB, 2016.
Steyaert, Chris & Daniel Hjorth, “Introduction: What is social entrepreneurship?” in Entrepreneurship as Social Change: A Third Movement in Entrepreneurship Book, ed. Chris Steyaert & Daniel Hjorth. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2006, pp. 1-18.
Tapsell, P. & C. Woods.“Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Self-Organization in an Indigenous context.” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 22.6 (2010): 535-556.
Volynet, I. (2015) Social Innovation and Aboriginal Communities. Prepared for Urban Aboriginal Knowledge Network, National Secretariat.
Voyageur, C., L. Brearley & B. Calliou, eds. Restoring Indigenous Leadership: Wise Practice in Community Development. 2nd Ed. Banff: Banff Centre Press, 2014.
Weber, J. Mark. “Social Innovation and Social Enterprise in the Classroom: Frances Westley on Bringing Clarity and Rigor to Program Design.” Academy of Management: Learning & Education 11.3 (2012): 409-418.
Westley, F., B. Zimmerman & M. Quinn Patton. Getting to Maybe: How the World is Changed. Toronto: Random House, 2006.
Westley, F., O. Tjornbo, L. Schultz, P. Olsson, C. Folke, B. Crona & O. Bodin. “Transformative Agency in Linked Social-Ecological Systems.” Ecology & Society 18.3 (2013): 27.
Submission of an original manuscript to the Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research / Revue canadienne de recherche sur les OSBL et l'économie sociale [thereafter ANSERJ] will be taken to mean that it represents original work not previously published, that it is not being considered elsewhere for publication; that the author is willing to assign copyright to the journal as per a contract that will be sent to the author just prior to publication and, if accepted for publication, it will be published in print and online and it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, for commercial purposes, in any language, without the consent of the publisher.
The journal takes the stance that the publication of scholarly research is meant to disseminate knowledge and, in a not-for-profit regime, benefits neither publisher nor author financially. It sees itself as having an obligation to its authors and to society to make content available online now that the technology allows for such a possibility. In keeping with this principle, the journal will published all of its issues online.
Authors who publish in the ANSERJ agree to release their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 Canada Licence. This licence allows anyone to copy and distribute the article for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given. For details of the rights an author grants users of their work, please see the licence summary and the full licence.