Hybrid organizations


  • Chantal Hervieux Saint Mary's University
  • Jean-Mathieu Fallu HEC Montréal
  • Marie-France Turcotte Université du Québec à Montréal




Social entrepreneurship, Durable entrepreneurship, Hybrid organizations, Entrepreneurial orientation, Market orientation / Entrepreneuriat social, Entrepreneuriat durable, Organisations hybrides, Orientation entrepreneuriale, Orientation vers le marché


In this article, we study hybrid organizations, namely those practicing social entrepreneurship and those practicing durable entrepreneurship. These organizations do not choose between the contradictory requirements fostered by the objectives that they pursue, be they double objectives (social and economic) or triple (social, economic and environmental). Rather, they choose to accept the tensions inherent in the pursuit of contradictory objectives. This study is based on a cluster analysis of 244 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It identifies and distinguishes between three main types of organization, commercial SMEs, social entrepreneurship SMEs and sustainable SMEs. These types of SMEs, even though they resemble each other in their structural characteristics (size, age, revenue), differ in terms of the actualization of their entrepreneurial and market orientations.


Dans cet article, nous étudions les organisations hybrides, c’est-à-dire celles de l’entrepreneuriat social et de l’entrepreneuriat durable. Ces organisations, plutôt que de choisir entre les exigences contradictoires posées par les objectifs doubles (social et économique) ou triples (social, économique et environnemental) qu’elles s’efforcent d’atteindre, choisissent d’accepter les tensions créées par la poursuite d’objectifs contradictoires. L’étude permet, à partir d’une analyse de regroupement réalisée auprès de 244 PME, d’identifier et de distinguer trois principaux types d’organisation, soit les PME commerciales, les PME d’entreprenariat social et les PME d’entrepreneuriat durable. En outre, ces types de PME, dont les caractéristiques structurelles (taille, âge, revenus) ne sont pas différentes, diffèrent en ce qui concerne l’actualisation de l’orientation entrepreneuriale et de l’orientation envers le marché.


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Author Biographies

Chantal Hervieux, Saint Mary's University

Director, Centre for Leadership Excellence

Assistant Professor

Sobey School of Business

Management Department

Jean-Mathieu Fallu, HEC Montréal

Jean-Mathieu Fallu est doctorant à HEC Montréal, 3000, chemin de la Côte‑Sainte‑Catherine, Montréal, Québec, H3T 2A7, jean-mathieu.fallu@hec.ca

Marie-France Turcotte, Université du Québec à Montréal

Marie-France Turcotte est directrice du Réseau entreprise et développement durable et professeure titulaire à l’École des sciences de la gestion, Université du Québec à Montréal, 315, Sainte-Catherine Est, local R-1020, Montréal, Québec, H2X 3X2, turcotte.marie-france@uqam.ca


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