Neoliberalism and Homelessness in the Western Canadian Arctic
Keywords:homelessness, nonprofit, neoliberal
Homelessness in the Beaufort-Delta represents a significant problem that is underserved by government, market, and nonprofit agencies. Based on research conducted during 2011-2012, this article outlines the breadth and scope of the housing problem and details extant service provision networks for homeless and hard-to-house (HtH) persons with addiction and mental health problems. A critique of neoliberal governance on housing development and social services suggests that significant effort is needed to deal with the problems associated with centralization on the one hand and the isolation associated with Arctic life on the other. The authors conclude by making recommendations for the future role of nonprofit agencies in the Beaufort-Delta through the adoption of a housing first approach.
Dans le delta de Beaufort, l’itinérance pose un sérieux défi que négligent les secteurs gouvernemental, commercial et sans but lucratif. Cet article se fonde sur une étude menée en 2011-2012 qui souligne l’envergure du problème de logement et recense les réseaux actuels qui desservent les sans-abris et les personnes difficiles à héberger souffrant de problèmes de dépendance et de santé mentale. Il s’ensuit dans cet article la critique d’une politique néolibérale envers la fourniture de logements et de services sociaux. Cette critique suggère qu’un effort important est requis pour surmonter les problèmes reliés à la centralisation des services d’une part et à l’isolement du milieu arctique d’autre part. Pour conclure, l’article propose un rôle futur pour les agences à but non lucratif dans le delta de Beaufort en recommandant à ces dernières une approche qui met l’accent sur les logements avant tout.
Abele, F., Falvo,N. & Hache, A. (2010). Homeless in the Homeland: A Growing Problem for Indigenous People in Canada’s North. Parity, 23, 21.
Aguirre, A., Eick, V. & Ellen, R. (2006). Introduction: Neoliberal Globalization, Urban Privatization, and Resistance. Social Justice, 33, 1-5.
Atherton, I. & McNaughton Nicholls, C. (2008). “Housing First” as a means of addressing multiple needs and homelessness. European Journal of Homelessness, 289-293.
Bell, L. (2013). Diamonds as Development: Suffering for Opportunity in the Canadian North. Unpublished Dissertation.
CMHA (Canadian Mental Health Association) (n.d.). Pathways Into and Out of Homelessness in Small B.C. Communities. Retrieved 28 July, 2013, from http://www.cmha.bc.ca/files/Pathways_Homelessness.pdf
Caragata, L. (2006). Housing and homelessness. In A. Westhues (ed.), Canadian Social Policy: Issues and Persepctives (4th ed.), pp. 267-290. Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press.
Citystats (2009). Inuvik Northwest Territories. Retrieved 21 July, 2013, from http://www.citystats.ca/city/Northwest-Territories/Inuvik.html
Christensen, J. (2011). Homeless in a homeland: Homelessness and housing (in)security in Inuvik and Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. PhD Dissertation. Montreal, QC: McGill University.
Christensen, J. (2012). “They Want a Different Life”: Rural Northern Settlement Dynamics and Pathways to Homelessness in Yellowknife and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe Canadien, 56, 419–438.
Cloke, P., Milbourne, P. & Widdowfield, R . (2000a). Homelessness and rurality: „Out-of-place' in purified space? Environment and Planning D 18 (6), 715-736.
Covington, S. (1994). Who governs the non-profit sector? Fund Raising Management, 25(5), 33-36.
Creswell, M. (2006). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Echenberg, H. & Jensen, H. (2008). Defining and Enumerating Homelessness in Canada. Publication No. PRB 08-30E 29 December 2008 Reviewed 17 May 2012, Social Affairs Division Parliamentary Information and Research Service. Retrieved online May 30, 2012 at: http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/prb0830-e.htm#fn8
Enjolras, B. (2000). Coordination failure, property rights and non-profit organizations. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 71, 347-374.
ESDC (Employment and Development Services Canada) (2013). Homeless Strategy. Retrieved 20 July 2013, from http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/communities/homelessness/index.shtml
Hackworth, J. & Moriah, A. (2006). Neoliberalism, contingency and urban policy: The case of social housing in Ontario. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30, 510-527.
Hall, M.H. & Reed, P.B. (1998). Shifting the burden: How much can government download to the non-profit sector? Canadian Public Administration, 41, 1-20.
Harvey, D. (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hubley, A. M., Russell, L. B., Gadermann, A. M., & Palepu. A. (2009). Quality of Life for Homeless and Hard-to-House Individuals (QoLHHI) Inventory: Administration and Scoring Manual. Vancouver, BC: Authors.
IIC (Inuvik Interagency Committee) (2003). Inuvik: Homelessness Report. Inuvik, NWT.
______. (2006a). Homelessness: State of response in Inuvik, NWT. Inuvik, NWT: Inuvik Interagency Committee.
______. (2006b). Homelessness: State of response in Inuvik, NWT. Inuvik, NWT: Inuvik Interagency Committee.
Kelly J.G., Mock L.O. & Tandon D. S. (2001). Collaborative inquiry with African-American community leaders: Comments on a participatory action research process. In Handbook of Action Research, P. Reason and H. Bradbury H. (eds). London: Sage, pp. 348-355.
Kronstal, A. (2010). Negotiating change: community mental health and addiction practice in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Master of Arts Thesis. Victoria, BC: University of Victoria.
Laird, G. (2007). Shelter – Homelessness in a Growth Economy: Canada’s 21st Century Paradox. Retrieved 20 July, 2013, from http://www.chumirethicsfoundation.ca/files/pdf/SHELTER.pdf
Menzies, P. (2009). Homeless Aboriginal men: Effects of intergenerational trauma. In Finding Home: Policy Options for Addressing Homelessness in Canada, J.D. Hulchanski, P. Campsie, S. Chau, S. Hwang, and E. Paradis (eds.). Toronto: Cities Centre, University of Toronto. Retrieved August 18, 2011from, http://www.homelesshub.ca/ResourceFiles/Documents/6.2%20Menzies%20-%20Homeless%20Aboriginal%20Men.pdf
McBride, S. & McNutt, K. (2007). Devolution and neoliberalism in the Canadian welfare state: Ideology, national and international conditioning frameworks and policy change in British Columbia. Global Social Policy, 7, 177-201.
Minkler, M. & Wallerstein, N. (eds). (2003). Community-Based Participatory Research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
NAHO (National Aboriginal Health Organization). (2005). Ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) or self-determination applied to research: A critical analysis of contemporary First Nations research and some options for First Nations communities. Ottawa: First Nations Centre.
O’Leary, Z. (2004). The Essential Guide to doing Research. Sage: Thousand Oaks.
Pain, R. (2003). Social geography: On action-orientated research. Progress in Human Geography 27, 649-658.
Pain, R. (2003). Social geography: On action-orientated research. Progress in Human Geography, 27, 649-658.
Pal, L. (2010). Beyond Policy Analysis: Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times. Toronto, ON: Nelson Education.
Peck, J. & Tickell, A. (2002). Neoliberalizing space: The free economy and the penal state. In Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and West Europe. Maiden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Quinn, A. (2007). Reflections on intergenerational trauma: Healing as a critical intervention. First Peoples Family & Child Review, 3,72-82.
Ryan, J., & Robinson, M. (1996). Community participatory research: Two views from Arctic Institute practitioners. Practicing Anthropology, 18, 7-11.
Salamon, L.M. (1987). Of market failure, voluntary failure, and third-party government: Toward a theory of government-nonprofit relations in the modern welfare state. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 16, 29-49.
Salokangas, R. (2005). Gwich’in Views of the Mackenzie Gas Project. Inuvik, NWT: Aurora Research Institute and Gwich‟in Renewable Resource Board.
Tuhiwai Smith, L. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples. London, UK: Zed Books.
Waegmakers Schiff, J. & Rook, J. (2012). Housing First: Where’s the Evidence? The Homeless Hub Paper Series #1. Retrieved 21 July, 2013, from http://www.homelesshub.ca/library/housing-first---where-is-the-evidence-54120.aspx
Wenzel, G. (2008). Clyde Inuit Settlement and Community: From Before Boas to Centralization. Arctic Anthropology 45, 1-21.
Wilson, J. (2009). Poverty Reduction, Policies and Programs: Northwest Territories. Social Development Report Series. Canadian Council on Social Development.
YHC (Yellowknife Homeless Coalition) (2007). Planning for Phase III of the Community Plan to Address Homelessness in Yellowknife. Yellowknife, NWT: Yellowknife Homelessness Coalition.
Submission of an original manuscript to the Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research / Revue canadienne de recherche sur les OSBL et l'économie sociale [thereafter ANSERJ] will be taken to mean that it represents original work not previously published, and that it is not being considered elsewhere for publication.
The journal takes the stance that the publication of scholarly research is meant to disseminate knowledge and, in a not-for-profit regime, benefits neither publisher nor author financially. It sees itself as having an obligation to its authors and to society to make content available online now that the technology allows for such a possibility. In keeping with this principle, the journal will publish all of its issues online.
Authors who publish in the ANSERJ agree to release their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This licence allows anyone to copy and distribute the article for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given. For details of the rights an author grants users of their work, please see the licence summary and the full licence.