Chantal Hervieux, Jean-Mathieu Fallu, Marie-France Turcotte


In this article, we study hybrid organizations, namely those practicing social entrepreneurship and those practicing durable entrepreneurship. These organizations do not choose between the contradictory requirements fostered by the objectives that they pursue, be they double objectives (social and economic) or triple (social, economic and environmental). Rather, they choose to accept the tensions inherent in the pursuit of contradictory objectives. This study is based on a cluster analysis of 244 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It identifies and distinguishes between three main types of organization, commercial SMEs, social entrepreneurship SMEs and sustainable SMEs. These types of SMEs, even though they resemble each other in their structural characteristics (size, age, revenue), differ in terms of the actualization of their entrepreneurial and market orientations.


Dans cet article, nous étudions les organisations hybrides, c’est-à-dire celles de l’entrepreneuriat social et de l’entrepreneuriat durable. Ces organisations, plutôt que de choisir entre les exigences contradictoires posées par les objectifs doubles (social et économique) ou triples (social, économique et environnemental) qu’elles s’efforcent d’atteindre, choisissent d’accepter les tensions créées par la poursuite d’objectifs contradictoires. L’étude permet, à partir d’une analyse de regroupement réalisée auprès de 244 PME, d’identifier et de distinguer trois principaux types d’organisation, soit les PME commerciales, les PME d’entreprenariat social et les PME d’entrepreneuriat durable. En outre, ces types de PME, dont les caractéristiques structurelles (taille, âge, revenus) ne sont pas différentes, diffèrent en ce qui concerne l’actualisation de l’orientation entrepreneuriale et de l’orientation envers le marché.


Social entrepreneurship; Durable entrepreneurship; Hybrid organizations; Entrepreneurial orientation; Market orientation / Entrepreneuriat social; Entrepreneuriat durable; Organisations hybrides; Orientation entrepreneuriale; Orientation vers le marché

Full Text:



Albert, S., & Whetten, D. A. (1985). Organizational identity. Research in Organizational Behavior, 7, 263–295.

Apospori, E ; Zografos, K. G. & Magrizos, S. (2012). SME corporate social responsibility and competitiveness: a literature review, International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 58(1/2), 10-31.

Atuahene-Gima, & Ko, K. (2001) An empirical investigation of the effect of market orientation and entrepreneurship orientation alignment on product innovation. Organization Science, 12(1), 54–74.

Austin, J., Stevenson, H. & Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: The Same, Different or Both? Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 30(1), 1-22.

Baker, W.E., Sinkula, J.M., (2009). The complementary effects of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on profitability in small businesses. Journal of Small Business Management 47(4), 443–464.

Banerjee, S.B. ; Iyer, E.S. & Kashyap, R. K. (2003). Corporate Environmentalism: Antecedents and Influence of Industry Type, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 67(2), 106-122.

Battaglia, M., Bianchi, L., Frey, M. and Iraldo, F. (2010) ‘An innovative model to promote CSR among SMEs operating in industrial clusters: evidence from an EU project’, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 17(3), 133–141.

Biondi, V., F. Iraldo & Meredith, S.: (2002), Achieving Sustainability Through Environmental Innovation: The Role of SMEs, International Journal of Technology Management 24(5), 612–626.

Battilana, J. ; Lee, M. ; Walker, J. & Dorsey, C. (2012). In Search of the Hybrid Ideal, Stanford Social Innovation Review, summer 2012, 49-55.

Bhuian, S., Menguc, B. & Bell, S. (2005), Just entrepreneurial enough: the moderating effect of entrepreneurship on the relationship between market orientation and performance, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 58(1), 9-17.

Campbell, J.L. (2006). Institutional Analysis and the Paradox of Corporate Social Responsibility, The American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 49(7), 925-938.

Chamlee-Wright, E. (2008), The Structure of Social Capital: An Austrian Perspective

on its Nature and Development, Review of Political Economy, 20(1), 41 – 58.

Chen, Y. S. (2008). “The Positive Effect of Green Intellectual Capital on Competitive Advantages of Firms,” Journal of Business Ethics 77(3), 271–286.

Cohen, B. & Winn, M. I. (2007). Market imperfections, opportunity and sustainable entrepreneurship, Journal of Business Venturing 22(1), 29–49

Covin, J. G. and Slevin, D. P. (1991) ‘A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behavior’, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 16(1), 7–25.

Covin, J.G. & Wales, W.J. (2012). The measurement of entrepreneurial orientation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Volume 36(4), 677–702.

Dacin, P. A., Dacin, M. T., & Matear, M. (2010). Social entrepreneurship: Why we don’t need a new theory and how we move forward from here. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(3), 37-57.

Dart, R. (2004). Charities in Business, Business in Charities, Charities and Business – Mapping and Understanding the Complex Nonprofit/Business Interface, The Philanthropist, 18(3), 181-199.

Dees, J.G. (1998). The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship

Dibrell, C. ; Craig, J. & Hansen, E. (2011). Natural Environment, Market Orientation, and Firm Innovativeness: An Organizational Life Cycle Perspective, Journal of Small Business Management, 49(3), 467–489.

Eikenberry, A. M., & Kluver, J. D. (2004). The marketization of the nonprofit sector: Civil society at risk? Public Administration Review, 64(2), 132–140.

Fiol, C. M., Pratt, M. G., & O’Connor, E. J. (2009). Managing intractable identity conflict. Academy of Management Review, 34(1), 32–55.

Florin, J. & Schmidt, E. (2011). Creating Shared Value in the Hybrid Venture Arena: A Business Model Innovation Perspective, Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 165-197

Gruber, M., Heinemann, F., Brettel, M., & Hungeling, S. (2010). Configurations of resources and capabilities and their performance implications: an exploratory study on technology ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 31(12), 1337-1356.

Hervieux, C., Gedajlovic, E. &Turcotte, M-F., (2010). The legitimization of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy 4(1), 37–67.

Hughes, M. & Morgan, R.E. (2007). Deconstructing the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and business performance at the embryonic stage of firm growth. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(5), 651–661.

Jaworski, B.J. & Kohli, A.K. (1993), Market orientation: antecedents and consequences, Journal of Marketing, 57(3), 53-70.

Ketchen, D.J., Jr. & Shook, C.L. (1996) “The Application of Cluster Analysis in Strategic

Management Research: An Analysis and Critique”, Strategic Management Journal, 17(6), 441-459.

Kohli, Ajay K. & Jaworski, B. J. (1990), Market Orientation: The Construct, Research Propositions, and Managerial Implications, Journal of Marketing, 54(2), 1- 18.

Kohli, A.K., Jaworski B.J. & Kumar, A. (1993). MARKOR: A measure of market orientation, Journal of marketing research, Vol. 30(4), 467-477.

Larson, A.: (2000), Sustainable Innovation Through an Entrepreneurship Lens, Business Strategy and the Environment, 9(5), 304–317.

Lasprogata, G.A. & Cotton, M.N. (2003). Contemplating enterprise: The business and legal challenges of social entrepreneurship. American Business Law Journal, 41(1), 67-113.

Longo, M., M. Mura & Bonoli, A.: (2005), Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Performance: The Case of Italian SMEs, Corporate Governance, 5(4), 28–42.

Lumpkin, G.T. & Dess, G.G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135–172.

Lumpkin, G.T.; Moss, T.W.; Gras, D.M. , Kato, S., S.K. Amezcua, S.K. (2013), Entrepreneurial processes in social contexts: how are they different, if at all? Small Business Economics, 40(3), 761-783.

Mair, J. & Marti, I. (2006). Social Entrepreneurship Research: A Sources of Explanation, Prediction, and Delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36-44.

Matsuno K, Mentzer JT & Özsomer, A. (2002) The effects of entrepreneurial proclivity and market orientation on business performance. Journal of Marketing, 66(3), 18–32.

Menguc, B &. Ozanne, L. K. (2005). Challenges of the ‘‘green imperative’’: a natural resource-based approach to the environmental orientation–business performance relationship, Journal of Business Research, 58(4), 430– 438

Morris, M. H.; Coombes, S. ; Schindehutte, M. & Allen, J.. (2007). Antecedents and Outcomes of Entrepreneurial and Market Orientations in a Non-profit Context: Theoretical and Empirical Insights, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol. 13(4), 12-39.

Nicholls, A. (2006). Introduction: The meanings of social entrepreneurship. In A. Nicholls (Ed.), Social entrepreneurship: New paradigms of sustainable social change (pp. 1–36). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nicholls, A., (2010). The legitimacy of social entrepreneurship: reflexive isomorphism in a pre-paradigmatic field. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 34 (4), 611-633.

Nicholls A, Cho AH. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: the structuration of a field. In Nicholls A (ed.) Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Social Change,. (p.99–118). Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Peredo, A.M. & McLean, M. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 56-65.

Perrini, F. (2006). Social entrepreneurship domain: setting boundaries. The new social entrepreneurship: What awaits social entrepreneurial ventures? Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Perrini, F., A. Russo & Tencati, A. (2007), CSR Strategies of SMEs and Large Firms. Evidence from Italy, Journal of Business Ethics 74(3), 285–300.

Porter, M. E., & van der Lind, C. (1995). Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate, Harvard Business Review, 73(5), 120–134.

Pratt, M. G., & Foreman, P. O. (2000). Classifying managerial responses to multiple organizational identities. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 18–42.

Punj, G. & Stewart, D. W. (1983). Cluster analysis in marketing research: Review and suggestions for application, Journal of Marketing Research, 20(2), 134-148.

Quarter, J.; Sousa, J.; Richmond, B.J. & Carmichael, I. (2001). Comparing Member-Based Organizations within a Social Economy Framework, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 30(2), 351-375.

Ruebottom, T. (2013). The microstructures of rhetorical strategy in social entrepreneurship: Building legitimacy through heroes and villains, Journal of Business Venturing, 28(1), 98-116

Schaltegger, S. & Wagner, M. (2011). Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Innovation: Categories and Interactions, Business Strategy and the Environment, 20(4), 222–237.

Shapero, A.: (1975), ‘The Displaced, Uncomfortable Entrepreneur’, Psychology Today 7, 83–89.

Sharir, M. & Lerner, M. (2006). Gauging the success of social ventures initiated by individual social entrepreneurs, Journal of World Business 41(1), 6–20.

Smith, W.K. & Lewis, M.W. (2011). Toward a theory of paradox : A dynamic equilibrium model of organizing, Academy of Management Review, 36(2), 381-483.

Spence, L.; Guerib, J.B.B.; & Biwolé, V. O. (2011). Sustainable Entrepreneurship: Is Entrepreneurial will Enough? A North–South Comparison, Journal of Business Ethics, 99(3), 335–367

Weerawardena, J., McDonald, R. E., & Mort, G. S. (2010). Sustainability of nonprofit organizations: An empirical investigation. Journal of World Business, 45(4), 346–356.

Wilson, F. & Post, J. E. (2013). Business models for people, planet (& profits): exploring the phenomena of social business, a market-based approach to social value creation, Small Business Economics, 40(3),715-737.

Winn, M.I., Kirchgeorg, M., (2005). The siesta is over: a rude awakening from sustainability myopia. In: Sanjay, Sharma, Mark, Starik (Eds.), Corporate Environmental Strategy and Competitive Advantage. (p. 232–258). Edward Elgar.

Wolverton, B. (2003). Surviving tough times. Chronicle on Philanthropy, October 30.

Zahra, S. A. (2008). Being entrepreneurial and market driven: Implications for company performance. Journal of Strategy and Management, 1(2), 125−142.

Zahra, S., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D.O., & Shulman, J.M. (2009). A Typology of Social Entrepreneurs: Motives, Search Processes, and Ethical Challenges, Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 519-532.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22230/cjnser.2016v7n1a203


  • There are currently no refbacks.